Thermal regulators
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 Safety
Good thermal regulator – safety and money saving
Carbon-copper polymer film usage quality depends on quality of regulating device – thermal regulator (thermostat) – operation.
Regulator consists of two units: control and commutation units. Operation of control block (power connection/disconnection modes) is defined by programmed algorithms, and commutation unit connects/disconnects power according to commands received from control unit. As commutation device serves mostly electromechanical relay, which, in accordance with voltage level on control contacts, connects/disconnects power contacts, commutating electrical circuit. Microsparking and gradual contact wear takes place during contact connection.
 
 
Figure 2 shows two curves. Upper curve characterizes optimal electronic floor operation mode. If room temperature during the time period from t0 to t1 reaches Topt, then regulator disconnects power connected to the film, and after air temperature in the room reached the lowest acceptable limit, connects power again, restoring film heating process. Such operation mode is possible, if room has good heat insulation and heated floor area conforms to room volume.
 
 
 Much worse if outside is cold, and room heat insulation is poor. Then desired Topt cannot be reached, and film is automatically disconnected from supply power, once it reaches its critical acceptable temperature. If regulator’s integrated control algorithms are not sufficiently correct, then follows power connection, as regulator detects that desired Topt is not reached. Such situation may be dangerous. As a result of repeated reconnections sparking and sometimes even contact adhesion may happen. If heating device is not connected to the automatic fuse, consequences may be sad.

Unfortunately, thermal regulators of very different quality exist in the world; therefore you should not trust unverified solutions even if they have all certifications, which, unfortunately, will not confirm quality of control unit operation algorithms.
High safety level can be reached with contact-free commutation units on symistor base, as there is no mechanical connection during commutation in those. Even if control algorithms will not be sufficiently correct, you will not have significant problems with operation safety. Therefore, it’s recommended to use contact-free thermal regulators in planning large heated floor areas.
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